Lifeblood: Water is vital to all life on Earth. Paradise Valley, Durban & Cactus landscape, thirsty desert. Karoo Heartland, Eastern Cape

Whether in a state of lack or abundance, the presence of water is key to each environment’s make-up. 

South Africa has one of the richest ranges of biodiversity in the world, with a land surface of 1,1 million square km – representing only 1% of the world’s total land surface – South Africa contains almost 10% of the world’s total known bird, fish and plant species, and over 6% of the world’s mammal and reptile species. 

There are nine broad vegetation zones or biomes in the country, which have all adapted to survive and thrive in varying levels of water.  Climate change has a direct impact on these water levels, which has created an additional challenge for each biome to overcome with varying levels of vulnerability.

Further resources:
Vulnerability to climate change –